Chilli

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Disease Management


Chilli is affected by a number of diseases. The name, causal organism, symptom and control measures are as follows:

Damping off

Causal organism: Pythium aphanidermatum, Phytophthora spp. and Pellicularia filamentosa

Symptom: The shrinking of the cortical tissue of the hypocotyls and the falling over of the affected seedlings. The most characteristics feature of this disease is the toppling over of the seedling due to wire-like stems at the basal portion of the plant.

Control Measures:

a) Crop belonging to solanaceae family (brinjal, potato etc.) should not be grown after chilli cultivation. Any other crop belonging to any other family may be cultivated.

b) Uprooting and burning of the affected plants as soon as they are noticed in the field.

c) Soil solarization is an effective method to control soil borne pathogens.

d) Bio-control agents like Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens are found to be effective in controlling the damping off in chilli.

e) Soil should be well drained

Wilt of chilli:

Causal Organism:
Fusarium annuum

Symptoms:  The cortical decay of the collar and the roots. The plants droop down as it seems to be suffering from water scarcity, even there is no water scarcity in the field at that time. Leaves roll upward & inward, later turn yellow and die.

Control Measures:

a) Crop belonging to solanaceae family (brinjal, potato etc.) should not be grown after chilli cultivation. Any other crop belonging to any other family may be cultivated.

b) Proper water drainage should be maintained..

c) Restricted use of Pseudomonas fluorescens 15 days after transplanting and three months after first application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg FYM or compost is beneficial against the disease.


Leaf Spot

Causal Organism: Cercospora capsici

Symptom:
Small, circular, water-soaked spots develop on the leaves, stem, petiole and peduncle of fruits are formed at the initial stage of disease development. Later the spots dried and the centre drops out of the old spots. The entire leaves turn yellow and drop. In severe cases, the plant become defoliated and exposing the fruits to the sun causing sun-scalding.

Control Measures:

a) Uprooting and burning of the affected plants as soon as they are noticed in the field.

b) Spray of Bordeaux mixture (1%) at fortnight interval

C) Crop belonging to solanaceae family (brinjal, potato etc.) should not be grown after chilli cultivation. Any other crop belonging to any other family may be cultivated.

Anthracnose (ripe rot or die-back)

Causal Organism: Colletotrichum capsici

Symptom: 
Circular, sunken spots on green or ripening fruits and branches in moist weather, acervuli (spore of the fungus) are formed in concentric circles; branches die-back.


Control Measures:

Same as Leaf Spot

Bacterial Leaf Spot

Causal Organism:
Xanthomonas vesicatoria

Symptom:

Small, dark, greasy spots on the leaves, petiole and tender parts of the stem are formed. Water-soaked spots appear on green fruits. In later stages, the centre of the spots become light brown and slightly sunken.

Control Measures:

Same as Leaf Spot

Alternaria Blight

Causal Organism:
Alternaria solani

Symptom:
Leaf spots are dark and leathery; older leaves die pre-maturely and drop.

Control Measures: Same as Leaf Spot

Leaf Curl

Causal Organism:
Gemini-virus

Symptoms: The leaf size becomes very small accompanied with a downward curling.

Control Measures for mosaic and leaf curl: Control measures yet not known. The only possible way to control viral diseases is to minimize the insect vector population. As many viral diseases are transferred from one plant to another by the insect. Hence, mechanical, cultural methods are mostly recommended.

a) Selection of healthy seeds.

b) Nursery beds should be covered with nylon nets or straw to protect the seedling from vectors.

c) Raise 2-3 rows of maize or sorghum as border crop to restrict the spread of aphid vectors.

d) Crop belonging to solanaceae family (brinjal, potato etc.) should not be grown after chilli cultivation. Any other crop belonging to any other family may be cultivated.

e) Rogue out the infected plants as soon as they are noticed in the field.

f) Grow resistant varieties e.g. ‘Puri Red’ and ‘Puri Orange’, HC-28, HC-44, Musalwadi, Pant C-1 & C-2, NP 46-A etc.

g) Removal of weed hosts around the chilli crop also helps to control the vector multiplication.

Mosaic Causal

Organism:
Virus

Symptom: Light-green and dark –green patches are found on the leaves.

Control Measures: Same as leaf curl

Insects Managenment:

Chlli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis):

Symptom: Minute fragile insects with fringed wings, nymphs and adults lacerate the tissues and suck sap from leaves which curl and dry at tips.

Leaf spots are dark and leathery; older leaves die pre- maturely and drop.

Control Measures:
a) Application of neem seed kernel extract (3%) can be done for controlling thrips.

b) Release of larvae of Chrysoperla carnea, a bi-control agent, once in 15 days is also helpful to control thrips.

c) Installation of yellow sticky traps to attract and kill it.

Leaf-eating cater pillar (Laphygma exigua):

Symptom:
Sporadic pest which defoliate the plants.

Control Measures: Same as chili thrips

Pod-borer (Spodoptera litura): Pod-borers are polyphagus and appear on both in vegetative and reproductive stages of the plant. Borers enter chilli pods by second and third instars by making a hole near calyx and feed on chilli seeds.

Symptom:
Tiny dark cater-pillars feed gregariously, scraping the leaves; later the cater-pillars segregate and assume cutworm habits. They feed voraciously on leaves in nurseries and in the main field.

Control Measures:
a) Restricted installation of Pheromone traps (5/acre) in the field helps to monitor the adult moths. Ten days after spotting the moths in the traps, spraying with Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) @ 500 ml/ha 4-5 round is beneficial to control larval stage of pod borers.

b) The egg masses can mechanically be collected and destroyed.

c) Collection and destruction of infected fruits and affected plant parts as soon as they are noticed in the field.

d) Trichogramma may be released two days after appearance of moths.

e) Spraying of neem products like neem oil or neem kernel extract and restricted use of Bacillus thuringiensis @ 1 kg/ha are beneficial.

Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii):

Symptom:
Transmits mosaic disease from one plant to another

Control Measures: Same as chili thrips

White flies (Bemisia tabaci):

Symptom:
Transmit the viral disease leaf curl.

Control Measures: Same as chili thrips


Introduction | Climatic Requirement | Soil Requirement | Varieties | Cropping System
Field Preparation and Sowing | Nutrient Management | Weed Management | Disease Management
Harvesting | Post Harvesting | Market and Export Potential | Miscellaneous