Mandarin Orange

Introduction | Climatic Requirement | Soil Requirement | Varieties
Cropping System | Nutrient Management | Water and Irrigation | Weed Management
Disease Management | Harvesting | Post Harvesting | Miscellaneous
  Introduction

Scientific Name : Citrus reticulate
Family : Rutaceae
Centre of Origin : China

Mandarin orange is the most common among citrus fruits grown in India. It occupies nearly 50% of the total citrus area in India. Mandarin group includes all types of loose jacket oranges commonly called Santra or mandarin such as Nagpur Santra, Coorg Santra, the Khasi Mandarin, Sikkim Mandarin etc. Sikkim Mandarin represents the most important commercial fruit of Sikkim. Sikkim Mandarin is similar to the Nepal or Assam or Darjeeling Mandarin. Citrus reticulate is a highly polyembryonic species, having medium sized upright trees. Besides world wide demand of Mandarin Oranges as fresh fruits, these can be used for the preparation of a number of processed products like orange marmalade, bottled and canned juices, squash, jam, jelly etc. Orange oil is also important citrus oil used for flavouring purposes.

In Sikkim mandarin orange is cultivated from time immemorial. It is a native fruit of Sikkim and is very popular in Kolkata market.

Origin and Distribution:
The origin of citrus reticulate is China. Though, it is grown in many states of India, certain belts/pockets have emerged as the leading producers. The valleys of Tista and Rangeet rivers and their tributaries of Sikkim and adjoining Darjeeling district of West Bengal offer an ideal Himalayan climate for the cultivation of Sikkim Mandarin. Other Mandarin oranges are grown in the regions of Coorg (Karnataka) the Wynad tracts of Malabar (Kerala), Nilgiris, Shevroy Hills and Yerc and Hills (Tamil Nadu). Khasi Mandarin is extensively grown in Khasi, Jaintia and Lushia Hills and the districts of Cachar, Kamrup, Goalpara, Darrange and Sibsagar. The famous Nagpur Santra is grown around Nagpur region of Central India. In Punjab, mandarin cultivation is confined to the sub-mountane districts of gurdaspur, Hosiarpur and Kangra. In Uttarakhand, the main Santra growing areas are sub-mountane tracts of Garhwal in the kumaon hills. Mandarins are also grown around Saharanpur, Banaras, Mirzapur districts and humid plains of Bengal and Bihar having varying altitudes and rainfall.

In Sikkim, mandarin is cultivated in an area of about 6,300 hectares, with a total average annual production of about 17,190 tonnes. The important orange producing areas are the Tista and Rangeet river valleys within the elevation range of 600 to 1500 m above mean sea level. Tashiding, gyalshing, Omchung, Tijyah, Lingchom, Bermiok, Barthang, rinchenpong, chinthang, Chakung, Zoom, Timberbong, Karthok in the West; Kewsing, Lingmoo, Sangmoo, Yangang, Payong, Rateypani, Namthang, Tarku, Tokal- Bermiok, Turuk, Sumbuk in the South Nazitam, Sang, Simiklingy, Khamdong, Sirwani, Samdong in the East and Dikchu and Hee-Gyathang in the North district of Sikkim are the important orange growing areas of Sikkim.

Introduction | Climatic Requirement | Soil Requirement | Varieties
Cropping System | Nutrient Management | Water and Irrigation | Weed Management
Disease Management | Harvesting | Post Harvesting | Miscellaneous